Melanoma Maligna

Melanoma Maligna


A. DEFINITION

Maligna Melanoma is a type of neoplasia which malignan stems from cells that may form melanin everywhere part of the skin or eyes. Also derived from mucus membranes in the pubic area, lubur, oral cavity. This disease usually occurs on the adults in de novo or pigmented, lentigo maligna nevus. Other definitions of maligna melanoma IE skin malignant tumor originating from the system melanositik of the skin (melanocytes) to the image be blackish lesions on the skin. Usually causes extensive metastasis in a short time, not only through the flow of lymph to the regional, but also spread through the bloodstream to the tools in, and can cause death. This is a type of cancer of the skin is the most violent and potentially deadly. In America, obtained data on six of the seven died of this cancer sufferers. And the number of people stricken with increased from year to year. Maligna Melanoma can develop from moles arising out of existing or emerging.

B. ETIOLOGY

The cause is not known for sure. Can arise from normal skin (de novo) nevus pigmentosus or derived from (junctional nevus), melanotic Hutchinson's freckles are pigmented, giant nevus, blue nevus. The cause of the occurrence of skin cancer there are two, namely the cause from within the body as well as from outside the body. Many factors are thought to play a role in the onset of maligna melanoma including genetic factors (existing at birth), Sunshine (maligna melanoma often is associated with the cause of the skin against the Sun's light. For example, the melanoma tumor usually grown men on the back as well as with women, tumors grow on the back of the leg), and also the cause of carcinogens, factor phenotypes (blond hair, blue eyes, light skin like the kneeing on the person bright skinned at the same time, someone who is bright skinned and less pigmented has a high risk of melanoma tumor gets maligna. Generally, melanoma effect on parents, but on any teenager presents to be found), and the presence of potential precursor against melanoma. Other risk factors include namely the Atypical Mole Syndrome, Large Nevi Kogenital Melanocytes. Lentigo maligna melanoma family history and the history of positive maligna

C. EPIDEMIOLOGY

The disease is spread all over the world. Correlation of the incidence of melanoma is usually the opposite of the latitude, i.e. insidennya higher on the area near the Equator and is lower progressively on a region nearer the poles. The disease is rare before puberty, but can be of all ages. The highest incidence in the age of 35-55 years. It can be about the men and women with equal frequency, but morbiditasnya is higher in men.

D. CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS

Early forms of very difficult to distinguish with the other tumors. Because melanoma is a fatal disease maligna when distant metastasis, then the ability to recognize early violence needs to be deepened. Localization in the lower extremities was reported, and then in the head/neck, body, ektremitas top, nails. The key invention maligna melanoma cure is early, so that a diagnosis of melanoma should be increased when the sufferers reported new pigmented lesions or moles that change, such as:
1. change in color
2. changes in size (especially rapid growth)
3. the onset of the symptoms (itching, burning, or pain)
4. elevation occurred on a previously flat lesions
5. changes on the surface of or changes in pigmented lesions consistency
6. the development of satellite lesions
The American Academy of Dermatology stressed the importance of ABCD when evaluating any pigmented lesion, namely:
A = Asymmetry
B = Border irregularity
C = Color variegation
D = Diameter of more than 6 mm

Kutan maligna melanoma primer can be classified in four major types, namely:
Lentigo Maligna Melanoma. 

1. (LMM)

LMM melanotic Hutchinson's also called precancerous freckles are or Dubreilh. LMM lentigo maligna lesions arise from who has been there before. LMM occupy approximately 5% of primary skin melanoma, primarily occurs in the elderly. Contrary to other melanoma, LMM substipe on areas of the body that are exposed to sunlight, especially the face. Lentigo maligna lesions on the usually small colored patches of degeneration, dark brown, Brown, or black. On the surface can be found the presence of pigmentation, spots scattered irregularly. The lesion extends vertically and along. Can develop into an invasive nodule blackish blue and somewhat hiperkeratotik.

2. The spreading Melanoma (SSM) Surface Maligna

Generally arise from normal skin or nevus (de novo). It is the kind that is often encountered, which is about 70% of seluuh maligna melanoma. More often found at a younger age compared to LMM, i.e. in the range 40-50 years. Lesions in the form of archiformis plaque measuring 0.5-3 cm long with its edges and along. On the surface there is a mixture of various colors like Brown, grey, blue, black, and often reddish. Extends radially. In General after the lesion reaches the size of 1-2.5 cm, occur vertically growth phase and develop into nodules blackish blue. Predileksinya on the woman found in the lower limbs and backs, while in men dibadan and neck.
3. Bernodul Maligna Melanoma (NM)
It can occur without radial growth phase preceded. So ABCD rule could not be applied to this subtype. Approximately 10-30% of cases of melanoma is a type of noduler. A place that often affected are the head, neck and body. The lesions are usually in the form of nodules that rises, Pigmented uniform. Its color ranges from dark brown to blackish-blue, or sometimes amelanotik.
Lentigo Maligna Melanoma of 4. Akral (RIP)
Generally arising in normal skin (de novo). Is the type of the most rare (1%), but can be very violent due to the delay in diagnosis. Predileksinya on the soles of the feet and the hands, fingers and feet, the base of the nails, and mucous membrane. Lesions in the form of spots with pigment scattered with varying intensity. On the surface can arise papule, nodule, and can undergo ulceration.

E. HISTOLOGY

Melanoma Histology

F. THE DIAGNOSIS (EXAMINATION)

Cancer of the skin is different from other diseases, cancer of the skin or a skin disease can be seen directly with the eyes of the examiner. The method pemeriksaannya can be done by anamnesis history of disease. And by the way do the penyayatan mole which is then observed under the microscope. From penyayatan the mole can be known of her type of cancer and stage of the cancer.
And can also be done with a laser diangnosis. Can capture three-dimensional images of the chemical changes and the structure that has been going on under the surface of human skin. See skin disorder are prominent on the size greater than 2.5 cm.

G. PATHOGENESIS

Normally, skin cells in the epidermis splits with regular and legs. New cells often reject the old cells to the outer surface of the skin where the old cells will die. This process is controlled by DNA. Skin cancer is valid because there is a disruption in this process in which the cell divides and forms a big growth.

H. COMPLICATIONS

Maligna Melanoma is a type of skin cancer which is the most malignant, it can spread to other bodies such as goto the lymphatic glands, causing hypertension, hipercholesterolemia.

I. THE PROGNOSIS



Maligna melanoma prognosis vary widely. Is determined by many factors, including the following:

1. The nature of the tumor

·    This type of tumor: prognosis for the LMM has most bai, then SSM, while the NM and ALM has the worst prognosis.
·    tumor location: lesions on the extremities have a better prognosis than dibadan.
·    the rate of invasion and depth (thickness): makin in the invasion of the tumor, a prognosis the more poorly.

2. clinical Stage

Figure 5-year survival in melanoma based on stadium clinic are:
·    Stage I (a disease limited to the skin): 80-85%
·    Stage II (concerning regional limfonodi): 36%
·    Stage III (disease disseminata): less than 5%

3. The location of metastases

Metastases to the bones and hearts have a worse prognosis, than in case of metastasis to the lymph glands and skin. If there are melanogen in the urine then the prognosis is worse.

4. Factor of sufferers

·    immunity
·    the State of public
·    gender, prognosis is better in women than men



Belum ada Komentar untuk "Melanoma Maligna"

Posting Komentar

Iklan Atas Artikel

Iklan Tengah Artikel 1

Iklan Tengah Artikel 2

Iklan Bawah Artikel